False Evidence Wikipedia

False evidence - Wikipedia.

False evidence, fabricated evidence, forged evidence, fake evidence or tainted evidence is information created or obtained illegally in order to sway the verdict in a court case.Falsified evidence could be created by either side in a case (including the police/prosecution in a criminal case), or by someone sympathetic to either side.Misleading by suppressing evidence can also ....


Iraq and weapons of mass destruction - Wikipedia.

Iraq actively researched and later employed weapons of mass destruction (WMD) from 1962 to 1991, when it destroyed its chemical weapons stockpile and halted its biological and nuclear weapon programs as required by the United Nations Security Council. The fifth President of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, was internationally condemned for his use of chemical weapons during the ....


False confession - Wikipedia.

No other class of evidence is so profoundly prejudicial. 'Thus the decision to confess before trial amounts in effect to a waiver of the right to require the state at trial to meet its heavy burden of proof'." Leo argued that false confessions gather collective force as the judicial process proceeds, and become almost impossible to overcome..


Sensitivity and specificity - Wikipedia.

The number of false positives is 9, so the specificity is (40 - 9) / 40 = 77.5%. Similarly, the number of false negatives in another figure is 8, and the number of data point that has the medical condition is 40, so the sensitivity is (40 - 8) / (37 + 3) = 80%. The number of false positives is 3, so the specificity is (40 - 3) / 40 = 92.5%..


United States free speech exceptions - Wikipedia.

The Supreme Court has held that "advocacy of the use of force" is unprotected when it is "directed to inciting or producing imminent lawless action" and is "likely to incite or produce such action".. In the early 20th century, incitement was determined by the "clear and present danger" standard established in Schenck v. United States (1919), in which Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. ....


False allegation of child sexual abuse - Wikipedia.

A false allegation of child sexual abuse is an accusation against one or more individuals claiming that they committed child sexual abuse when no abuse has been committed by the accused. Such accusations can be brought by the alleged victim, or by another person on the alleged victim's behalf. Studies on the rate of recorded child abuse allegations in the 1990s suggested that the ....


False hero - Wikipedia.

The false hero is a stock character in fairy tales, and sometimes also in ballads. The character appears near the end of a story in order to claim to be the hero or heroine and is, therefore, usually of the same sex as the hero or heroine. The false hero presents some claim to the position. By testing, it is revealed that the claims are false ....


Central Park jogger case - Wikipedia.

The Central Park jogger case (events also referenced as the Central Park Five Case) was a criminal case in the United States over the aggravated assault and rape of a white woman in Manhattan's Central Park on April 19, 1989, occurring at the same time as an unrelated string of other attacks in the park the same night. Five black and Latino youths were convicted of ....


Appeal to consequences - Wikipedia.

Appeal to consequences, also known as argumentum ad consequentiam (Latin for "argument to the consequence"), is an argument that concludes a hypothesis (typically a belief) to be either true or false based on whether the premise leads to desirable or undesirable consequences. This is based on an appeal to emotion and is a type of informal fallacy, since the desirability of a ....


Criminal law - Wikipedia.

Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.It prescribes conduct perceived as threatening, harmful, or otherwise endangering to the property, health, safety, and moral welfare of people inclusive of one's self. Most criminal law is established by statute, which is to say that the laws are enacted by a legislature.Criminal law includes the punishment and rehabilitation of ....


Fraud - Wikipedia.

As a civil wrong. In common law jurisdictions, as a civil wrong, fraud is a tort.While the precise definitions and requirements of proof vary among jurisdictions, the requisite elements of fraud as a tort generally are the intentional misrepresentation or concealment of an important fact upon which the victim is meant to rely, and in fact does rely, to the harm of the victim..


Evidence | Facts – Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet.

History. The rate of change since the mid-20th century is unprecedented over millennia. Earth's climate has changed throughout history. Just in the last 800,000 years, there have been eight cycles of ice ages and warmer periods, with the end of the last ice age about 11,700 years ago marking the beginning of the modern climate era -- and of human civilization..


Presumption of guilt - Wikipedia.

A presumption of guilt is any presumption within the criminal justice system that a person is guilty of a crime, for example a presumption that a suspect is guilty unless or until proven to be innocent.. Such a presumption may legitimately arise from a rule of law or a procedural rule of the court or other adjudicating body which determines how the facts in the case are to be proved, ....


Falsus in uno, falsus in omnibus - Wikipedia.

Falsus in uno, falsus in omnibus is a Latin maxim meaning "false in one thing, false in everything." At common law, it is the legal principle that a witness who testifies falsely about one matter is not credible to testify about any matter. Although many common law jurisdictions have rejected a categorical application of the rule, the doctrine has survived in some American courts..


Killing of Caylee Anthony - Wikipedia.

Caylee Marie Anthony (August 9, 2005 - June-December 2008) was an American girl who lived in Orlando, Florida, with her mother, Casey Marie Anthony (born March 19, 1986), and her maternal grandparents, George and Cindy Anthony. On July 15, 2008, she was reported missing in a 9-1-1 call made by Cindy, who said she had not seen Caylee for 31 days and that Casey's car smelled ....


Base rate fallacy - Wikipedia.

False positive paradox. An example of the base rate fallacy is the false positive paradox.This paradox describes situations where there are more false positive test results than true positives. For example, if a facial recognition camera can identify wanted criminals 99% accurately, but analyzes 10,000 people a day, the high accuracy is outweighed by the number of tests, and the ....


Tu quoque - Wikipedia.

Tu quoque (/ tj u: ' k w o? k w i, t u: ' k w o? k w eI /; Latin Tu quoque, for "you also") is a discussion technique that intends to discredit the opponent's argument by attacking the opponent's own personal behavior and actions as being inconsistent with their argument, therefore accusing hypocrisy.This specious reasoning is a special type of ad hominem attack. . ....


Brown note - Wikipedia.

The brown note is a hypothetical infrasonic frequency capable of causing fecal incontinence by creating acoustic resonance in the human bowel. The name is a metonym for the common color of human faeces.Attempts to demonstrate the existence of a "brown note" using sound waves transmitted through the air have failed. Frequencies supposedly involved are between 5 and 9 ....


2001 anthrax attacks - Wikipedia.

The 2001 anthrax attacks, also known as Amerithrax (a portmanteau of "America" and "anthrax", from its FBI case name), occurred in the United States over the course of several weeks beginning on September 18, 2001, one week after the September 11 terrorist attacks.Letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to several news media offices and to Democratic Senators Tom ....


Tommy Robinson (activist) - Wikipedia.

Stephen Christopher Yaxley-Lennon (born 27 November 1982), better known as Tommy Robinson, is a British far-right, anti-Islam activist, and convicted criminal on multiple counts of violence and fraud as well as other crimes.He is the co-founder and former leader of the English Defence League, and later served as a political advisor to former UKIP leader Gerard Batten..